Cataract is a cloudiness or opacity of the eye's natural clear lens. It obstructs the passage of light to the retina of the eye and impairs vision. When the lens develops cloudiness to the point that it impairs vision, it is called Cataract. It is like looking through a frosted glass.What Causes Cataracts
The eye functions much like a camera. Light rays enter the eye, passing through the cornea, the aqueous humor -- transparent fluid in the front of the eye -- and then the pupil and into the lens. The lens bends the light rays to focus objects onto the retina lining the back of the eye. From there, the image passes through the retinal cells, into the optic nerve, and finally to the back of the brain which process the images.
Cataracts occur when there is a buildup of protein in the lens that makes it cloudy. This prevents light from passing clearly through the lens, causing some loss of vision. Since new lens cells form on the outside of the lens, all the older cells are compacted into the center of the lens resulting in the cataract.Types of cataracts include
Age-related cataracts As the name suggests, this type of cataract develops as a result of aging.
Congenital cataracts Babies are sometimes born with cataracts as a result of an infection, injury, or poor development before they were born, or they may develop during childhood.
Secondary cataracts These develop as a result of other medical conditions, like diabetes, or exposure to toxic substances, certain drugs (such as corticosteroids or diuretics), ultraviolet light, or radiation.
Traumatic cataracts These form after injury to the eye.Symptoms
Surgery is the only option for treatment of cataract. In surgery, the surgeon removes the clouded lens puts an Intraocular Lens (IOL) in the patient's eye to restore pre-cataract vision.Femtosecond Laser Technology
Before the development of intraocular lenses, people use to wear specialized contact lenses and thick eye glasses for clear vision after the eye surgery. Now, with cataract lens replacement, several types of IOL implants are available to help people enjoy improved vision.How IOLs work
An IOL focuses light that comes into your eye through the cornea and pupil onto the retina, the sensitive tissue at the back of the eye that relays images through the optic nerve to the brain. Most IOLs are made of a flexible, foldable material and are about one-third of the size of a dime.
Determine which lens option is right for you?
Types of Intraocular (IOL) Lens
Monofocals are set to provide best corrected vision at near, intermediate or far distances.
Multifocal or Accommodative Lenses
In the multifocal type, a series of focal zones or rings is designed into the IOL. Depending on where incoming light focuses through the zones, the person may be able to see both near and distant objects clearly.
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